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Sykes Picot Agreement Summary

After the outbreak of war in the summer of 1914, the Allies – Britain, France and Russia – had much discussion about the future of the Ottoman Empire, which is now fighting on the side of Germany and the central powers, and its vast area in the Middle East, Arabia and southern Europe. In March 1915, Britain signed a secret agreement with Russia, whose plans for the territory of the Empire had prompted the Turks to join Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1914. Under its terms, Russia would annex the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, and retain control of the Dardanelles (the extremely important strait that connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean) and the Gallipoli Peninsula, the target of a major Allied military invasion, which began in April 1915. In exchange, Russia would accept British claims to other territories of the former Ottoman Empire and Central Persia, including the oil-rich region of Mesopotamia. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Agreement took place during the First World War and aimed at other objectives in the defeat of the Ottoman Empire and was part of a series of secret agreements that reflected on its partition. The first negotiations that led to the agreement took place between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, during which British and French diplomats Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot signed an agreed memorandum. [3] The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. [4] In the Middle East, few men are pilloried these days, as much as Sir Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot. Sykes, a British diplomat, travelled on the same lawn as T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia), served in the Buren War, inherited a Baronetcy and won a Conservative seat in Parliament. He died young, at the age of 39, during the flu epidemic of 1919. Picot was a French lawyer and diplomat who led a long but opaque life until his death in 1950, mainly in Backwater-Posten.

But the two men continue to live in the secret agreement they were to devise during the First World War to divide the vast land mass of the Ottoman Empire into British and French spheres of influence. The Sykes-Picot agreement launched a nine-year process – and other agreements, declarations and treaties – that created the modern States of the Middle East out of the Ottoman carcass. The new frontiers looked little like the original sykes-picot map, but its map is still considered to be the cause of many things that have happened since. On 18 September Faisal met in London and the next day and 23 had long meetings with Lloyd George, who explained the memory aid and the British position. Lloyd George stated that he was “in the position of a man who had inherited two groups of commitments, those of King Hussein and those of the French,” Faisal noted that the agreement “seemed to be based on the 1916 agreement between the British and the French.” Clemenceau responded about Memory Aid, refusing to travel to Syria and saying that the case should be left to the French to directly manage Fayçal. In the Sykes-Picot Agreement, concluded on 19 May 1916, France and Great Britain divided the Arab territories of the former Ottoman Empire into spheres of influence. In its intended area, it was agreed that each country can establish a direct or indirect administration or control, as they wish and as they see fit to agree with the Arab State or with the Arab confederation.