Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. Instead of investing all its energy and capabilities in its long-standing quest for special treatment within the regime, Turkey must instead prepare and build an institutional capacity to implement the Paris Agreement. By ratification, Turkey has yet to become one of the contracting parties, but as soon as it joins, Turkey will have difficulty respecting the commitment and revision process, which is an integral part of the Paris Agreement. In addition to implementing and communicating THE INDC on the basis of its commitments and review approach, the agreement also establishes a strong and comprehensive transparency framework, which builds on the existing UNFCCC monitoring, reporting and verification mechanisms and strengthens them so that the parties are more accountable. Turkey needs to strengthen its institutional capacity to ensure compliance with reporting and verification obligations. Although Turkey`s overall reporting record has improved considerably since its first accession to the UNFCCC in 2004, it has been weak, particularly with regard to delays in the submission of national reports. More importantly, these reports were criticized during the review process for not complying with UNFCCC reporting guidelines. The technical expert report of Turkey`s sixth national communication is a recent example. Footnote 7 Turkey has been criticized on several fronts, including a lack of clear definitions, a lack of transparency about the assumptions underlying emission trajectories and macroeconomic scenarios and, as has already been said, non-compliance with the reporting guidelines. In addition, some sector data are not provided in these reports for privacy reasons. As in previous review reports, the audit team recommended that Turkey increase transparency and present “applied assumptions.” Footnote 8 Similar criticisms and recommendations can also be observed when reviewing Turkey`s first and second joint semi-annual reports. Footnote 9 One of the main reasons for Turkey`s weak reporting record is its late participation in the climate regime.