President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met officially for the first time at the APEC summit in Manila, Philippines, in November 2015, nearly a week after he was sworn in. The two leaders expressed their zeal for increased cooperation and coordination between the two countries during the Trudeau government, with Trudeau promising a “strengthened partnership between Canada and the United States.”  President Barack Obama`s first international trip took place to Canada on February 19, 2009, sending a strong message of peace and cooperation.  With the exception of Canadian lobbying against the provisions of the U.S. “Buy American” stimulus package, relations between the two governments have gone well. When Britain decided to put itself on the back burner, fears of an American takeover played a role in Canadian Confederation (1867) and Canada`s rejection of free trade (1911). Military cooperation was close during the Second World War and continued throughout the Cold War, bilaterally through NORAD and multilaterally through NATO. A very high volume of trade and migration between the two countries, as well as a strong overlap between popular and elite culture, a dynamic that led to closer relations, especially after the signing of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement in 1988. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, who was to work closely with his Secretary of State Louis St-Laurent, treated foreign relations cautiously in 1945-48. Canada has donated money to the United Kingdom to help it rebuild; was elected to the UN Security Council; and helped shape NATO. Mackenzie King, however, rejected free trade with the United States, and decided not to play a role in the Berlin Airlift.
 Canada had been an active participant in the League of Nations, mainly because it could act separately from Great Britain. He played a modest role in the post-war formation of the United Nations as well as the International Monetary Fund. He played a slightly larger role in the development of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1947.  After the mid-20th century, Canada and the United States became extremely close partners. Canada was a close ally of the United States during the Cold War. This northern flow of asylum seekers appears to have been spurred in part by the Trump administration`s immigration policies, Canada`s image as a refuge for refugees, and misconceptions about Canada`s immigration system. .